Showing posts with label finance and investment. Show all posts
Showing posts with label finance and investment. Show all posts

Sunday, April 15, 2018

An Introduction to Popular Digital Payment Platforms

Digital Payment – Useful System of Transaction

The digital payment platforms have now become the most useful system of transaction in the Indian economy, particularly post demonetisation. When the announcement of doing away of Rs 500 and Rs 1000 notes had been made by the government, people had to move to digital payment method in a hurry for daily requirement on daily living for making payments on shopping to the payment of bills as well as to send funds to their family members. This situation had created a huge chaos among the citizens driving them to frustration.

The digital payment method though well-known now has its quotient of advantages and disadvantage. Its main benefit is the convenience of digital platform which can be utilised with ease. With several of the merchants now accepting the digital payment method, it gets easier in making transaction for, sending and receiving money in the digital mode.

The government is also encouraging such platforms with exemption from service tax when digital payment is done up to Rs. 2000 and 0.75% discount on fuel transactions. Moreover, users also benefit with referral bonus and cashback to merchants who tend to utilise the UPI platform BHIM by the National Payments Corporation of India.

Utilise – Safe Manner

Though digital payment is well known, it is essential that the same should be utilised with caution. Users need to know how to utilise the digital manner is a safe manner. Users could also get mixed up in choosing from the several digital system of payment in the market since there are many options to choose from. Some of the well-known digital modes of payments are mentioned below for ready reference:


Unified Payment Interface – UPI assists in sending and receiving money directly to one’s bank account. It enables the transfer of funds on utilising the UPI ID or the account numbers. Several popular UPI apps like BHIM, SBI UPI, HDFC, UPI, Tez, iMobile apps and much more are available in the market.


E-wallets were beneficial when demonetisation had come up and the ATMs were not functioning. Since then people opted for it as a part of their daily activity. E-wallets can be utilised in the payment of utility bills, payment to be done at local stores, in sending and receiving money anywhere etc. Users need to be aware that KYC is compulsory in utilising e-wallets according to the instructions of RBI

Aadhaar Enabled Payment Service -AEPS

AEPS is said to be a digital paymentsystem that utilises the Aadhar number while paying the creditors. AEPS, unlike the other types of payment charges for the transactions that are made by the user or on behalf of the user. It tends to use your fingerprint as a password and the need of a signature is not essential, or an account number or any alphabetic or numeric password. It can be utilised in making interbank transfers also.

Unstructured Supplementary Service Data – USSD

USSD is unlike the other types since the use of internet is not needed. Users can check into their account send money or even alter MPIN with only a feature phone known as *99# since it utilises *99# as its code for transactions. Rs 5000, is the limit for each individual on the platform where a maximum charge of Rs 2.5 is charged for each transaction.

Thursday, June 1, 2017

Machine Learning Promises to Shake Up Large Swathes of Finance


Machine-Learning – Compliance/Risk Management/Prevention of Fraud

Machine-learning has been enhancing in fields right from trading to credit assessment to fraud prevention. It has begun shaking up finance wherein a subset of artificial intelligence –AI tends to excel in locating patterns as well as making forecasts, which it utilised in preserving the technology firms. Towards 2019, those seeking to aspire being a `chartered financial analyst’ or desire distinction in the industry would be requiring, AI proficiency in order to be successful in his exams.

 Machine-learning, regardless of the uncertainty of several inclusive of some `quant’ hedge funds which tend to specialise in algorithm based trading, is said to be poised in having great impact. New fintech firms together with some quick officials have begun applying the system to everything right from scam protection to discovering new trading policies, capable of up-end not only of the labour of the back office but also the more honest glamorous stuff.

 Machine learning has already been utilised for task like compliance, risk management as well as the prevention of fraud. A British firm known as `Voice’, tends to sell machine-learning driven speech transcription tool to huge banks in order to monitor the phone calls of traders for any indications of wrongdoing lime an insider trading.

Near Actual Tracking – Risk Disclosure

The other specialist such as Xcelerit or Kinetica seem to provide the banks as well as investment firms with near actual tracking of any risk disclosures enabling them to display their capital needs constantly. Machine-learning tends to surpass in noticing strange patterns of operation that may display fraud. Start-ups firm such as Feedzai – for payments, or Shift Technology – for insurance to behemoths like IBM have been providing these services and some have been developing the skills internally.

A British banking start-up – Monzo had built a model, swift enough for stopping the would-be fraudster from implementation of a transaction thus bringing down the fraud rate on its pre-paid cards in June 2016 from 0.85% to less than 0.1% by January 2017. The natural-language processing wherein AI-based system have been released on text, has begun to have a great effect in document-heavy portions of finance.

JPMorgan Chase, in June 2016, had organized software which can scrutinize through 12,000 commercial-loan contracts within seconds in comparison to the 360,000 hours the lawyers and loan officers tends to utilise in reviewing the contracts.

Automated Financial Decision

Besides this, machine-learning is also said to be good for automated financial decision irrespective of assessing credit worthiness or eligibility for an insurance policy. Zest Finance being in business of automated credit-scoring right from its foundation in 2009 had earlier in the year rolled out a machine-learning underwriting tool to support lenders in making credit decisions as well as for people with little conventional credit-scoring information.

It tends to scrutinize through huge amount of data like the payment history of people or how they seem to interact with the website of lenders. A tech savvy insurance start-up, Lemonade, has been utilising machine-learning to sell insurance policies as well as to manage claims. The latest boundary for machine-learning probably is in trading wherein it is utilised to bite on market data and also to select and trade portfolios of securities.

At Goldman Sachs, the quantitative-investment strategies division tend to utilise language processing motivated by machine-learning in order to go through thousands of analyst’s reports on the companies. Here it complies an aggregate `sentiment score’, depending on balance of positive to negative words. Goldman had also invested in Kensho which is a start-up utilising machine-learning in predicting how events such as natural disasters tend to affect market prices centred on data on similar events.

Restricted Useful Applications

A Toronto-based upstart, Castle Ridge Asset Management has attained annual average returns of 32% since its establishment in 2013. It tends to utilise a cultured machine-learning method such as those used in modelling evolutionary biology in making investment decisions. The chief executive, Adrian de Valois-Franklin, claims that it is very sensitive that it picked up 24 acquisitions before they had even been announced.

On the other hand, Man AHL, which is a well-established $18.8bn quant fund provider, had been conducting research in machine-learning for the purpose of trading since 2009 as well as utilising it as one of the techniques in managing client money since 2014. Martin Lueck of Aspect Capital seems to find the system exaggerated stating that his firm had observed only restricted useful applications for the same. However in other fields machine-learning has the possibilities of game-changing and there is no reason in expecting finance to be changed.

 As per a machine-learning fund manager, Jonathan Masci of Quantenstein, years of work on rules-based approaches in computer vision, telling a computer on how to recognize a nose for instant were instantly eclipsed in 2012 by machine-learning processes which enabled computers to `learn’ what a noses looked like from examining millions of nasal pin-ups.

Likewise a machine- learning procedure, according to Mr Masci has to beat conventional trading strategies depending on rules set by humans.

Monday, March 6, 2017

How Fintech Is Increasing Financial Inclusion after Demonetisation

Prospect of Personal Finance – Cashless/Paperless/Presence-less

Prospect of personal finance and money is being fashioned into three consequences namely cashless, paperless and presence-less. Due to demonetisation together with succeeding steps involved ever since attempts have been done by the Indian government in making the economy more digitized and less cash-dependent and the banking system is made more accessible.

 Being digital seems to be the quickest means of speeding up financial presence, ensuring that more individuals are brought under the domain of formal banking scheme, Moreover they can also take advantage from the linked benefits of insurance as well as investment. India has been a home to almost 50 crore million people who do not seem to involve themselves in formal banking either through saving account or a cell phone based payment scheme.

Digital execution means having a bank account and hence the challenge here is how you could get more individuals in opening bank accounts to provide them with digital benefits together with subsidies. When the government had been directing the country towards a reduction in the use of hard cash, people would need to have an account with the bank, together with internet connection as well as cell phone to operate the digital transaction. It is here that the roles of Aadhaar as well as the cell phone tend to get crucial.

Pilot Project through RBI

From the population of about 125 crore, around 109 crore have enrolled for Aadhar with at least 100 crore having cell phone number which is quite a large number than those having bank accounts which according to estimates would be around 70 crore.

With the combination of Aadhar together with cell phone it is advantageous of bridging the gap by around 30 crore unbanked individuals.The government has aided a pilot project, through the RBI which would quicken the opening of fresh bank accounts with the support of cell phones and Aadhaar.

Limited- functionality bank accounts can be opened by the customers utilising this system without the need of the usual stress of visiting a branch and submission of documents in completing the KYC process. With the aid of the Aadhaar linked cell number, their KYC can be completed by authenticating themselves via an OTP and one can open an account digitally, instantly, cashless, paperless, without the need of being physically present.

Process – Convenient & Easy 

This tends to be convenient and easy for the individual to complete the process in the comfort of his home and it is also great for financial service providers since the cost of customer acquisition tends to get condensed by relying on digital platform which have the capabilities of processing millions of account opening application simultaneously.

This will progressively be the type of account opening developments in insurance as well as investment sectors. Insurance providers have already been depending on the OTP system in authenticating new accounts through Aadhaar.

This development would be enhancing with the increase in internet penetration together with the availability of cheap smart phones. India has about 35 crore people, presently who are linked to the internet which tends to double every two to three years on an average and it is expected that by 2020, there would be around 70 crore Indians utilising the internet.

Thursday, May 5, 2016

Too Much Dividend can be a Turnoff, say Investors


European Companies – Highest Amount of Dividends

European companies have been paying the highest amount of their earning by way of dividends in over 40 years fuelling fear among analyst on whether such kinds of pay-outs are viable. Investors have for a long time dealt with queries of what companies need to do with the escalating cash load, to return it to shareholders or spend it on technology, research and development, top staff or bolting on new business for the future growth.

For the past five years income-hungry investors received dividends from the European firms and the pay-outs offered a solution to the combination of sluggish economic growth, aggressive central bank policy, enabling what had pushed bond yields to record lows and changing stock markets.

However, the growing cut off between earnings as well as dividends together with worries which companies would be adding debt to fund the shortfall was urging a reconsideration of this proposal. Senior research manager at S&P Global Market Intelligence Julien Jarmoszko stated that they were seeing a lot of companies trapped into their dividend policy.As per Thomson Reuters’ data, almost 60% of Europe Inc.’s earnings per share had been returned to the shareholders as dividends.

Cautionary Sign to Companies – Investors to Stop Rewarding Capital Returns

Companies’ partiality regarding dividends is in no small amount fuelled by investors encouraging companies to part with cash due to restricted opportunities for capital spending. However a shift is in progress. Last month’s Bank of America-Merrill Lynch survey of global fund managers, in one of the cautionary sign to companies that tend to borrow to fund buybacks and dividends, had suggested that investors may stop rewarding capital returns to the same degree as done earlier.

Net percentage of fund managers saying pay-out ratios to be `too high’, had been at the highest level since March 2009. Fund managers instead are progressively searching for earnings and rewarding companies which are either reinvesting back profits in order to expand their business or those which have cut pay-outs to protect their balance sheets.

Tim Crockford, lead manager of the Hermes Europe Ex-UK Equity Fund had said that they like companies which do not essentially pay too much of their cash flow out since they have good opportunities of investing in fixed capital, generating higher returns in the future through these investments.

Leaner Balance Sheets Indicates Substantial Shift

Crockford pointed out Spanish Technology Company Amadeus IT and German laboratory equipment company Sartorius as good examples. For instance, Amadeus had spent money for investment in its IT business, making the services of the firm much more appealing to customers like airlines.

In the meantime, some commodity connected firms that had cut dividends in an effort todeal with the slump in metals prices had seen their share prices gathering. Glencore that had lost more than half of its value last year before suspending dividends in September, had profited by 13% since then. BHP Billiton had gained 30% since cutting its dividend in February.

The inclination of accepting lower or no dividends in favour of leaner balance sheets indicates a substantial shift. Besides, it would also signal to European firms that attempts to spend on themselves and getting in front of a pickup in growth would be compensated while stubborn reliance on pay-outs would not.

Tuesday, March 22, 2016

IMF Says World at Risk of 'Economic Derailment’


Global Economy Faces Rising Risk of Economic Derailment - IMF

The International Monetary Fund – IMF has advised that the global economy tends to face a rising risk of economic derailment. David Lipton, Deputy Director has called for urgent steps to increase global demand. He had mentioned in his speech to the National Association for Business Economics in Washingtonrecently, that they are clearly at a delicate juncture. He warned that the IMF’s latest reading of the global economy indicates once again a weakening baseline.

His comments have come up after weaker than expected trade figures from China portrayed that the exports had plunged by a quarter from a year ago, in February. With the second largest economy of the world often stated as `the engine of global growth’, weaker global demand for its goods seems to be read as an indicator of the general global economic climate. IMF have already mentioned that it would be likely to downgrade the present forecast of 3.4% for global growth when it tend to release in April, the economic predictions. International lender had warned last month, that the world economy seemed to be highly susceptible and had called for new efforts to spur growth.

Downside Risks Clearly Pronounced

Ahead of last month’s Shanghai G20 meeting, in a report, the IMF had mentioned that the group need to plan a co-ordinated stimulus programme since the world growth had reduced and could be derailed by market turbulence, the oil price crash as well as geopolitical conflicts. In his speech in Washington, Mr Lipton had stated that the burden to lift growth falls more squarely on advanced economics which tend to have fiscal room to move.

He added that the `downside risks are clearly much more pronounced than earlier and the case for more forceful and concerted policy action has become more compelling. Moreover risks seemed to have increased further with volatile financial markets and low commodity prices creating fresh concern about the health of the global economy’. A swing of weak economic data had lately been added to these apprehensions and the US ratings agency Moody’s had downgraded its outlook for China from `stable’ to `negative’.

Time to Support Economic Activity

The rising unemployment is also another worry as Beijing tends to slowly shift its economy from over dependence on manufacturing and industry to more services and consumer spending. The economy of China seems to be growing at the slowest rate in 25 years which has resulted in considerable uncertainty in the financial markets all over the world leading to sharp falls in commodity prices.

Lipton has commented that `together with bank repair wherever needed and with adequate targeting on infrastructure, this approach could create jobs and probably reduce public debt-to-GDP ratios in the medium term by motivating nominal GDP as well as support credit and financial stability. On strengthening the global outlook, this coordinated action could hurry healing in the banking sector and prevent continent liabilities for the government which appear in case of inaction.

 Moreover it would also have considerable positive spill-overs to susceptible emerging economics comprising of commodity exporters which would be unable to participate in the fiscal expansion, directly. He added that at the recent G20 meetings in China, he thinks that `there was broad recognition of these risks and priorities and now is the time to support economic activity and put the global economy on a sounder footing’.

40 Banks Test Bitcoin Tech for Trading Bonds


Consortium of 40 Banks Test Using Blockchain

A consortium of 40 main banks comprising of Goldman Sachs and Barclays tested a way to trade fixed income assets by using the blockchain, which is a technology that tends to strengthens bitcoin in an attempt to emphasize how serious the biggest lenders in the world are regarding the technology.

R3 CEV, the financial technology firm that had brought the banks together last year to work on blockchain applications had made the announcement recently.Blockchain tends to work like a large decentralized ledger for the digital currency bitcoin, records each transaction and stores the information on a global network which cannot be tampered. But most of the experts agree that the technology does not seem close to mass adoption and is in the trial stage.

The technology could be applied to wide selection of uses and especially for financial firms; the most interesting parts would involve the clearing of trades. Experts state that the blockchain would enable a huge number of transaction settlements in a matter of minute or even in seconds together with it being very secure since each transaction tends to be recorded and is unable to be tampered. Presently some trades tend to take day in the settling process.

Smart Contract – Computer Code

Supporting this is the idea of `smart contracts, a computer code which would only perform when the terms of a contract are fulfilled. For instance, a trade may be carried out once the money from the buyer is received,all of which would be done automatically and there would not be any dispute since the same has been recorded in the blockchain.

A number of distributed ledger companies had worked with the banks for this test namely Chain, Eris Industries, Ethereum, IBM and Intel. The institutions had done an assessment of each smart contraction solution to trade fixed income of the company.

David Rutter, R3 CEO and a former executive at London based electronic brokerage ICAP had stated in a statement that `this development tends to support the belief of R3 that close collaboration among global financial institutions and technology providers will create significant momentum behind the adoption of distributed ledger solutions across the industry. R3’s website mentioned that its mission is `building and empowering the next generation of global financial services technology’.

Blockchain – Probable Disruptive Force in Finance

These technologies represent a new frontier of innovation and would dramatically improve the way the financial services industry operates, in the same way as the advent of electronic trading decades ago delivered huge advancement in efficiency, transparency, scalability and security’.Banks do not seem to be the only ones interested in technology. Nasdaq used the blockchain, last month to enable international resident of Estonia to vote in shareholder meeting while they were abroad and tested the blockchain for trading shares.

Bitcoin could have risen to more than 35% this year, though it is the fundamental technology behind the crypto currency which is moving the world’s main banks. Blockchain has been indicated as a probable disruptive force in finance by main institutions which tend to claim bitcoin as just the opening act in something bigger.

Friday, March 18, 2016

How Robots will Kill the 'Gig Economy

Gig Economy

Gig Economy – Cease to Exist in 20 Years

According to new report from venture backed start-up Thumbtack, an online marketplace which tends to help skilled workers locate customers, the so-called gig economy would cease to exist in 20 years. The study has forecast that logistic companies from start-ups like Uber right to tech giants like Amazon would be replacing drivers as well as delivery workers with autonomous vehicles and drones.

The study discovered that extremely skilled workers like lawyers and accountants would no longer be assured of jobs at big firms - will be the new gig economy workers. Jon Lieber, chief economist at Thumbtack and Lucas Puente, an economic analyst at the firm had mentioned in a report that `the gig economy known will not last.

 In the past few years, analysts and reports have obsessively focused on transportation technology platforms such as Uber and Lyft and delivery technology platforms like Instacart and the workers required for these on-demand services. The fine focus on low-skilled `gigs’ tends to miss a larger story. The rather commoditized, interchangeable services seem to supplement income, not generating middle class lifestyles. Besides, these jobs are probably going to be automated over a period of time and performed by self-driving cars and drones'.

Autonomous Driving Technology – Reduce Death/Transportation Affordable

Uber had been frank with regards to its plans in replacing drivers with robots over a period of time. An Uber spokesperson informed CNBC that `autonomous driving technology has the ability to drastically reduce deaths in cars, making transportation even more affordable. That it is an exciting future and one Uber plans to be part of, but that transition for technical, regulatory as well as adoption reasons, at scale, would take some time. The spokesperson stated that `in the meanwhile, the focus is providing flexible work opportunities for many people in the world as possible’.

According to Oxford academics Car Benedikt Frey and Michael A. Osborne, around half of U.S. jobs seem to be at high risk of computerization over the next 20 years. Their discoveries had been published in 2013 and are unchanged, but there are some limitations like resistance from stakeholders and relative wage levels which would determine if a job is in fact automated, according to Osborne.

Estimates on how many jobs robots will ultimately displace would vary widely. Forrester analyst J.P. Gownder mentioned in a report that `forecast of 16% of jobs would disappear owing to automation technologies between now and 2025.

Supervised by `Robo-Boss’ by 2018

However that jobs equivalent to 9% of present day’s jobs would be created. Physical robots need repair and maintenance professional, one of the several job categories which would grow around in a much automated world’. From the global point of view, over 3 million workers would be supervised by a `robo-boss’ toward 2018, as predicted late last year by research and advisory firm Gartner.

Osborne has stated that jobs which are least likely to be automated initially are those which need a high level of creativity or emotional intelligence. For instance, school teacher jobs seem to be comparatively safe due to the elevated level of social intelligence needed to teach as well as mentor children.

 The Oxford study found positions which seem mostly susceptible to automation comprise of telemarketers, watch repairer, tax preparers, insurance underwriters, cargo and freight agents and others. In each category, some jobs would be automated very soon. Osborne states that `this gig economy is being pursued via digital platform and is actually getting individuals to automate themselves out of a job by delivering data back to the platform which could be utilised in providing an automated substitute.

Thursday, February 4, 2016

After the sell off, stocks may actually be cheap


Sell Off Wall Street - A Silver Lining

Wall Street is finally breathing a sigh of relief after the S&P 500 Index managed to hold on to its first weekly gain of the year. One prominent market watchers had commented that inspite of signs of strength; stocks are still in store for a thundering reset. The ruthless sell off Wall Street had faced during the last few weeks could have a silver lining.

 According to FactSet, the S&P 500 Index is presently trading at around 15 times the earnings; analysts tend to expect constituents companies to post over the next year. This reading is known as `forward P/E on the popular measure of valuation which is compared to a 15 year average forward P/E ratio of 15.7. The conclusion collected from historical comparison is based on the timeframe taken into account.

 It is worth observing, in this case that the current valuation level tends to represent the premium to the average of 14.3 observed over the past five and ten years periods. Since the firm in the meantime is probably using various earnings estimates, IQ of S&P Capital current forward valuation number is 15.7 though they also observed that was under the 15 year average.

Broad Market Trading in Abyss

David Stockman who was the former OMB Director under President Ronal Reagan, is of the opinion that the broad market has been trading in the abyss after breaking beyond 1,870 in 2014, since then with a meagre one percent return. He had commented that they had been there for 700 days and had something like 35 attempts at rallies where all have failed for the `four no’s’. For him the four no’s comprise of a combination of no escape velocity, no earnings growth, no dry powder from the central bank and no reflation.Accompanied together, it leads him to the belief that the U.S. economy seems to be on the point of a full blown recession.

He further adds that they are getting to a point where the chickens are coming home to roost and there is no help from the central banks and that is why these rallies seem to get weaker as well as shorter. He is of the belief that the overflow of easy money from central banks all across the world has shaped a credit crisis which is so severe that it could probable take years to come out of what it has created.

High Powered Money – Enormous Expansion of Credit

Market watchers have pointed out a stunning $21 trillion collective balance sheet built up all around the globe, up from 2.1 trillion only 20 years back. He has said that this is high powered money which has resulted in an enormous expansion of credit as well as financial valuation bubble.

Stockman has observed that the speedy increase of credit has caused debt all over the world of over $225 trillion and has mentioned that they `are at peak debt’. Stockman, at this point considers that the hands of the Fed could be tied up after being on zero interest rates for almost a decade. There is nowhere to go but negative and it is time to get out of the market completely.

The S&P 500 has been progressively in correction territory in 2016and the large-cap index closed the week at around 11% from its 52 week high. However Stockman is of the opinion that it could plunge another 30% from its present trading which takes it back to levels not envisaged since 2012.

Friday, January 8, 2016

How to Create a Scalable Payments System

Creating Effective Fintech Payment System

Generating an effective fintech payment system is much more than removing the credit cards while indulging in transaction. There are several companies, in fintech which tends to build scalable payment methods and as per EY; the largest market in UK fintech is payments which is around £8bn a year.

However payment could be difficult and in order to make money, a new payment source is essential to scale rapidly for economics to function. A proposition is essential which could be considerably convincing for consumer as well as the merchant together with various other players in the value chain. Payment tends to work and though it is not impeccable by any means, all the same it tends to work.

Firstly, one needs to add value to a payment method in order to make an effective business. It was observed that just doing payments seems great though not good enough. Given the option of paying at a restaurant with the phone through contactless, rather than the credit card, the difference would not be big, and one will still need to go through the process of asking for the check and view it. Instead of paying with credit card, one would be paying with their phone and the incentive of using the phone is not strong.

No Need of Paper Vouchers/Loyalty Program

In one intends creating a compelling payment experience, like trying to comprehend the full process, one needs to understand where the discomfort points lies for the customer. For instance the technology has been integrated into restaurant apps enabling consumers in making payments for the total bill amount or split the bill with others through Apple Pay, PayPal or a registered card on a MyCheck account, without the need of waiting for the staff.

Moreover, it also permits sophisticated incentives together with loyalty programs that are designed to personalize the dining experience for the customers. When a customer tends to sit in a restaurant, they would want to check the menu and they can do that through the app of the restaurants which is powered by MyCheck and when he intends to redeem his coupons or offers or even participate with loyalty program, they could do the same through the app.

There is no need of paper vouchers or loyalty cards and the accumulation together with redemption seems to be automatic.

MyCheck Platform is Integrated

And when you want to pay, you don’t need to ask for the check since the MyCheck platform is integrated and one can pay as well as split the bill by utilising the smartphone.When it comes to monetizing an app it is based on what the app intends to achieve. Several of the payment apps have not been generating revenue and the merchant is paying them.

The amazing thing with regards to MyCheck is that they are in partners with chains that they are working with and the partners’ success becomes their success. It is not too difficult in persuading customers in using the app for the first time. The big challenge is on how one makes them loyal, how you tend to drive repeated visits and at the same time provide an improved customer experience.

According to their data, it has been observed that when a user tends to use the app more than twice, they get hooked to it. They need to be convinced to use them twice and then they tend to get used to the experience and appear to like it.

Friday, May 15, 2015

Equity Systematic Investment Plan - SIP

Stocks with good fundamentals are known to be some of the best ways of investment plans and investment in equity stocks has reaped phenomenal returns amongst various other assets if the same has been done in an organized manner with long time horizon. It is very important to select stocks and the right decision of the right price to enter in equity investment where most of the investors often tend to commit errors.

Equity Systematic Investment Plan or SIP is an instrument that tends to help an individual in avoiding the risk of timing the markets and enable wealth development in an organised or disciplined manner by averaging the cost of investments. Saving which tend to be small could create the big corpus in the long run. SIP enables the individual in building a portfolio on a longer time basis with small investment that are done at regular intervals thus reducing the danger of market volatility.

Individuals have the option of choosing between Quantity based and Amount based SIPs, in Mutual Funds, Stocks, ETFs as well as Gold. Quantity based SIP is a type where a fixed amount of quantity of shares of a desired company is purchased at a predefined frequency while Amount based SIP is a fixed amount which can be decided by the individual intending to invest in selected share at predefined frequency.

Disciplined & Long Term Time Horizon

The formula for calculating Quantity is SIP Amount/Market price of the said share. Fractional value is ignored and the order is placed for the remaining quantity. In the case of Quantity based SIP the quantity which is to be purchased is specified by the individual and is fixed at the time of placement of order according to the desired frequency.

The order value is then calculated depending on the usual market price of the scrip while execution of the order. In order to have a long term wealth development through the equity market, it is essential to have a disciplined and long term time horizon that have integral features of SIP. The following features would make an appropriate choice for equity market –
  • Disciplined and simple approach to investment
  • Based on concept of Rupee Cost Averaging
  • Investment possible with small sum of money invested recurrently to mount up wealth
  • Flexible intervals like Daily/Weekly/Fortnightly/Monthly basis
  • Flexibility with regards to Amount or Quantity based SIP
Avoid Majorly in Aggressive Funds

While investing in equity funds through SIP, though one will gain the rupee cost averaging benefits at the time of the volatile market phase, one should also avoid investing majorly in aggressive funds such as sector, thematic and mid-cap funds. One cannot guarantee better returns in excessive aggression.

On the contrary it could make your portfolio risky and probably disrupting the life stage with regards to investment goals. However, with mid-caps as a section of the portfolio, majority of it could comprise on large cap funds. Individuals often tend to start SIPs without a second thought on the amount they intend to invest comfortably. Often they try to make up for the lost time and then find it difficult to continue with their SIPs after a period of time.

This results in a stop of their investment and their long term life stage goals. Hence with systematic investment plans one should start conventionally and increase their investment amount gradually over a period of time ensuring stability.

Thursday, October 16, 2014

SEC Introduces New Money Market Rules Which Might Deter Investors From Investing

The Securities and Exchange Commission has announced few major changes to its money market fund (also known as MMF) regulation. SEC Chairwoman Mary Jo White had emphasised that these new rules are inculcated with an aim of reducing the risk of runs in the money market funds. The new MMF regulation is expected much needed financial stability in the funds market.

However, the Ms. White’s assertion of reducing the risk factor in money market along with bringing in of financial stability is a highly debatable call from any corner.

Detailed Analysis of the New Money Market Rule

The two major rules announced by the SEC related to MMF are:

  • a. MMFs can charge a certain amount of fee to withdraw your money or they might even delay paying during the times of stress. 
  • b. Second rule allows the share price to change in accordance with the market conditions.
Money Market Funds in general sense are mutual fund with a share price fixed at $1. During the normal and not-so-happening times, the MMF share remains unchanged. Furthermore, MMFs simply invests only in short-term debt which are non-volatile in nature. MMFs also respond to small price changes by adjusting their yield in a dignified manner. But currently we are living in highly unpredictable times with another crisis looming at the horizon. MMFs are also feeling the heat of the moment and bound to face liquidity risk, it is a situation where investors does not buy more as they to sell for raising cash.

Liquidity risk poses a real problem for the borrowers. It basically affects a corporation selling short term debts in order to finance its business operations. At the maturity of each debt contract, the corporation or issuer is expected to sell a new one. If the market sizes up, the corporation could get into big trouble due to lack of investment.

Credit market is often described as a highly unpredictable and volatile where everyone is having it fun until some misses a payment. When they cannot sell up the debt contracts corporation gets into a fix.
How this affects MMFs

This kind of situation is posing a serious threat to the money market funds because they own debts and hold them as their assets. Currently the market value of the MMFs assets are depreciating or falling but their share price is fixed at $1. This simply puts that fund loses more with every redemption. If a large number of redemption is made the remaining investors would end up just holding an empty bag

SEC Comes To Rescue 

Through its second rule, it allows the share price to drop as per market conditions and it saves the investors from the threat o total loss. And with its first rule of imposing penalties it cleverly discourages withdrawals to certain extent.

Through delaying of payments, it prevents the runs, which might occur even with a floating share price and withdrawal penalties. The new rule would come into effect in 60 days, which gives an ample time to the investors to pull their money if they wish to do so.

Monday, January 27, 2014

Online Investment Tips

Online Investment Tips
There is certainly no shortage of online investment tips today, and plenty of them are worthwhile. However, it's easy to get so excited about investing that you overlook the importance of savings. It's always a wise idea to squirrel away money for a rainy day. Before you begin to seriously invest, make sure you have all of these savings bases covered.

Emergency fund

The thing about emergencies is that they always show up without notice. They don't give you time to get your finances in order; they just fall into your lap and expect you to deal with them. By building an emergency fund, you cushion yourself against unexpected blows. Try to save at least three to six months' worth of your income in a savings account over time. The simplest way to do this is to set up an automatic transfer from your checking to your savings account each month.


Much can be said for saving for retirement, but the most important thing to know is that the sooner you start, the better. The best way to see how much you need to save is to use an online retirement calculator. Once you have that figured out, take one of two approaches. If you want to get to your goal in ten years or less, focus on aggressively saving money. A rule of thumb is to save ten to fifteen percent of each paycheck, but if you have less than ten years, up the percentage accordingly. If you have more time to save than ten years, focus on making solid investments. Max out your 401(k), and fortify your portfolio with solid investments that will yield the returns you need in the given time frame.

College Fund

With college costs on the rise, it's more important than ever to invest in your children's future. Open a state-sponsored 529 savings account for your child as soon as possible, and dedicate a portion of your income to the account over time. How much you save will depend on your child's projected college costs. Keep in mind that college costs increase on an average of 5% per year. You can aim to save 75% of their projected college costs, and have your child supplement the remaining costs with work study, loans, and other aid.
Learning to save is an important skill to have in life. It leads to a life of financial stability for you and your family, which is a valuable thing to have in these economic times.

Wednesday, January 22, 2014

How To Manage Your Budget!

Since people are very different from each other and also they save and spend on things at least as different as their personalities, there is no unique way to manage their monthly budget.
Some complain about the difficulty of managing a budget, and how much it can be difficult to accurately predict spending pattern in a month taking into account contingencies. But it can be something very easy if you are able to do a little discipline and a lot of regularity, because creating and following a budget takes a little time and perseverance.

The method of ant is particularly relevant for people who are new to budgeting and more have never really excelled in the field of savings. This method is very hard, and you can learn the most difficult month’s spenders that exist and need to know endure. I do not really like this technique because it does not bring much more benefits than the following which require less effort. However, if you are a consumer impulsive, maybe you should start with this method because it will allow you to familiarize yourself with what you can expect.

Good practice: draw your attention on every little expenditure and every bank statement looking for any abnormal operation. You will get your data through a large amount of information about your consumption, and manage your budget will be even easier. It is then eliminate all unnecessary spending and focus on what is essential. The disadvantage of this method is that in the end it is you who are addicted to consumption. Indeed, the following methods to establish an amount to save each month and build a budget around it. The technique of the ant, she reveals to consumption and what remains at the end of the savings. The great strength of someone who saves, is that it is able to do on a regular basis and amount to more or less constant. The "ant" does not really know how it will if it will be a good month for savings or not.

A second technique, which I prefer to the previous one, is that the envelopes. To manage your budget with this method, you must first identify your consumption. Then you need to divide the budget that you have estimated categories. Organize your categories in order of priority (usually 1 and 2 in include house rent and food), and then assign a fixed amount for each category, taking into account what you have seen in your monthly consumption.It is not always easy to follow this method of money management, because once the envelope is empty, the main rule is that you can not fill a second time. So once the budget "out of the weekend" is finished, it is finished. And unfortunately it may be the same for food or another. Therefore already control whether to start using this method.

Method "in pay first"

This method is nice. It eliminates significantly the stress of money. Manage your budget with this technique is rather simple.The method consists in removing from the 1st of the month else from the last payment of your salary, money you want to save. The amount saved is fixed at the beginning, and can increase the 30th of the month if you pour what you have. This leaves you the rest of your money for your usual expenses. So of course, always know expenses, and it is better not to have a budget too tight because the fact of saving early can constitute a risk in case of accident.

You can also apply this technique to other aspects of your life. For all your goals and commitments, this method is valid and you will succeed faster.The easing of stress in the fact that "pay yourself" comes from the fact that there are more sword of Damocles hanging over your head, threatening to claim his life at any time. The future of your savings and your investment is assured, and the little that remains is the risk of not having enough to finish the month.

Wednesday, January 15, 2014

Deadly Financial mistakes everyone makes

With innumerable articles on the way to manage our finances, we should always all be monetary wizards rolling in spare money. However World Health Organization among US has not ever created a pricey monetary blunder? The reality is, managing cash is difficult work and even the foremost financially savvy stumble typically. Thus here square measure some cash mistakes you'll be able to simply avoid.

Getting lured by outlay traps

Everyone loves a decent deal. that is why it's extremely tempting once stores supply zero-interest promotions and banks dangle credit cards with dazzling rewards before of our noses. However, these apparently 'smart' monetary selections solely sound sensible in theory. many folks fail to think about the results of not having the ability to pay their expenses in time, which regularly leads to associate degree accumulated interest at a high rate and combining interest on the balance going forward. The result: the number you finish up paying way outweighs the few bucks you would possibly have saved.

Buying a latest automobile

There’s nothing like driving around in an exceedingly shiny new automobile with seats that also smell of latest animal skin. However is your new automobile extremely a decent investment or square measure you only gushing cash down the drain? The actual fact is, a typical latest automobile loses concerning $17,000 of its worth over its 1st 2 years, creating it one among the quickest decreasing assets you would possibly own. Worse yet, folks typically trade their cars in when simply 2-3 years for a more modern model despite them losing cash thereon. The good issue to try and do would be to get a second-hand automobile. That way, you gain a comparatively new vehicle while not losing a lot of cash thereon.

Not having associate degree emergency fund

Nobody likes the surprising, however that does not mean you cannot steel onself for it. Not having associate degree emergency fund is one among the largest cash mistakes you'll be able to build. that is as a result of with no funds accessible to stay a monetary storm, you will be forced to penetrate your savings or worse, your retirement assets. that is why you must forever maintain 6–12 months of your living expenses to tide you thru any unforeseen circumstances. confine mind that your emergency fund isn't identical as your savings.

Buying too much/too very little insurance

An individual's insurance portfolio may be a necessary part of a financial statement. However, only too typically, folks shift from one extreme of not having enough coverage to the opposite, wherever they purchase additional insurance than they have. that is why the simplest thanks to verify what proportion insurance you must get is to consult a licensed monetary planner, World Health Organization can advise you on what you would like and what you've got an excessive amount.

By avoiding these deadly monetary mistakes, you will cut your losses and work your thanks to a far better monetary future.

Tuesday, January 14, 2014

How To Manage Your Money To Grow With Your Age

You can no longer rely on the interest from your savings account to provide for your retirement. In a changing economy, employer matches on 401k benefits are slowly starting to dwindle as well. This means that you need to take a long look at your savings strategy to ensure that you will have enough money for today as well as for retirement. What can you do to make sure that you have the money you need when you need it?

Have A Long-Term Strategy

The goal of any investment is to achieve a steady average rate of return. In many cases, anything over 8 percent return per year is considered to be a good return. However, your own rate of return will depend on where you put your money and which sectors that you invest in. Your risk tolerance and time horizon will also dictate how much you gain in any given year. The good news is that a long-term investment strategy keeps you from selling a losing stock too quickly.

Cost Averaging Is A Great Way To Make Money

Cost averaging can be a successful strategy that can enhance your gains even if a stock loses value. If you were to buy one share of stock at $100, you would need that stock to go above $100 to make a profit. If you bought one share of stock at $100 and another share of stock at $90, you only need that stock to go above $95 to make a profit. Therefore, do not be afraid to buy shares of a declining stock if you think that it will rebound in the future.

The International Markets Are Worth Investing In As Well

Don't limit yourself to companies that trade in the United States. There are several companies in countries such as Japan, China and India that offer immediate growth potential. Emerging economies such as Brazil offer you an opportunity to invest your money in foreign countries where the potential for profit is great. These emerging markets may offer higher returns on your investment both now and in the future as there is much more room for these economies to grow.

Never Underestimate The Value Of A Good Financial Adviser

A financial adviser is a vital piece of your overall investment strategy. People such as investing expert Dean Graziosi can help you manage your money in a way that will help your money grow at an efficient rate for years to come. In addition to keeping your money safe, you will get advice that will help you minimize the amount of tax that you pay when you eventually sell your investments.

There are a lot of issues that you have to consider when investing your money. You have to know how much you stand to gain, how stable your portfolio is and what you will do if the market declines. While it is never easy to predict what the market will do, having a solid plan and a good financial adviser can help you be a successful investor now and in the future.

Wednesday, January 1, 2014

Finance Management

Finance Management
Okay, therefore you’ve spiraled down along with your finances, because the power nations did within the wake of the money Crises. However everyone seems to be operating their method towards recovery; therefore, there’s no reason to let you be left behind.

In most cases, the tiny things that we have a tendency to consume – accrue to create expenses bloat huge and unchained the dear resources that you simply are presupposed to keep for later, or for saving. Well, it’s regarding time to place things back to the correct place, figures into bank accounts and spare turn into pockets.

Follow through these sections and begin managing your finances the do-it-yourself-way!

Stop creating excuses

You were presupposed to save that cash for one thing larger, however you blow it all away. Naturally, you’d embark with some grand story, excusing yourself for the full money collapse, ANd even dismissing this as an exaggeration.

But then, the cash you blew away won’t return. And if identical tale happens once more and once more, then maybe, these excuses ought to lose its power. Rather than excuses, take yourself in command of your ways in which. You’re not going anyplace, till you admit that it positive is your fault – and you’re able to correct it, here and currently.

More than living at intervals means that managing your finances primarily meant ‘living at intervals your means that.’ however as media is incommodious with ads and is nearly just about all over, the temptation becomes more durable to resist. Living at intervals your means that can sound sort of a joke.
You need to bolster this desiring to create your commitment (that strength to mention “no” to it stylish accent or cool tie). This will be created potential by movement off your gadgets from ads (yes, there ar such services). Busy yourself with comes and the other tasks as this may guarantee lesser hours to sit down and receive any promotion.

Come up with goals

Duration is comprehensive of the long and short term goals – months or years. Whereas subject is comprehensive of AN quality you'd wish to possess given the correct money designing and execution. AN example of a goal is “buying that red automotive when 5 months.”

Reach goals through designing

A plan is that the nearest factor towards creating such goal go on into reality. Curiously, creating an idea can be even as fun as creating one with friends. The latter possibility (drafting plans with a pal) sounds smart. After you think about it or return to the purpose of really breaking it, that pal (ie, witness) might inform you simply what your goal is or was.


Finance management doesn’t solely have to be compelled to be set in stone; it should even be versatile enough to accommodate new priorities. Just in case of the “red car:” What if when 5 months, you now not notice it necessary? New circumstances ought to warrant a revised alternative or toughened resolve.

Friday, December 27, 2013

How Can I Raise Capital to Fund My Invention

Raising capital to fund their invention is perhaps the toughest task that inventors have to be compelled to modify. They’d abundant rather pay their days rising their invention style and puzzling over new things to surprise the planet with than sit down and admit the cold, onerous numbers.

However, the reality is that almost all inventors are far away from being wealthy enough to be able to cope by themselves with all the invention method. At plan Design Studio, a concept selling company, our trained workers is ready to assist you out notice a positive answer to the question of raising capital to fund your invention.

Inventing a product is straightforward and fun, however developing the invention will be quite shuddery for many inventors. To create things worse, most of them don't have any plan the least bit of a way to write a business arrange, what Associate in nursing angel capitalist is or perhaps what proportion cash they really need.

Funding Your Invention: What prices ought to Be Considered?

A basic side of raising capital for your invention knows what proportion cash you would like. So as to arrive to a lot of or less correct quantity, there are completely different prices that you just ought to take into thought.

Amongst the foremost vital prices that nearly each creator can incur in we are able to mention:

Engineering and CAD style

epitome building (physical, virtual or both)

producing prices


Patent filings

General assessment throughout the invention method

Most inventors borrow cash from family and friends so as to develop their invention and find the business going. In fact, most of the entrepreneurs that create it into the duvet of Forbes or Fortune typically say that they owe their success to their friends and family WHO trustworthy in them and inspired them each showing emotion and economically to pursue their dreams.

However, not each creator has family or friends with cash to spare Associate in nursing beggary for cash for an invention that you just don't even understand if it'll achieve success or not will be quite embarrassing. Do you have to quit all hope then? After all not!

Writing down the Numbers for Funding Your Invention

Now that you just understand the items you may have to be compelled to invest in if you would like to develop your invention, you ought to begin requesting budgets. Rummage around for CAD sty leers and raise them what proportion cash they'd charge you for providing you with a 3D CAD design of your invention sketches. Attempt to notice someone which will build a epitome of your invention, contact completely different patent lawyers to assess what proportion they'd charge you for serving to you out filing the patents then on.

Looking at the cold numbers can assist you see black over white the capital you ought to raise for your invention?

This is an important piece of data because it can permit you to visualize {how abundant what proportion what quantity} cash you'll be able to raise by yourself and the way much cash you would like to borrow.
Write A Business Plan: The Key to Attracting Investors to Your Invention

Writing a business arrange is that the key to attracting investors to your invention. It demonstrates that you just ar serious concerning your project. certify you embody your profile as Associate in Nursing creator, the other invention you've got developed within the past and each vital detail concerning the invention you would like to develop: what it will, why it's helpful, WHO is it aimed for then on.

If you haven’t written a business arrange before, don't doubt to contact the workers at plan style Studio to assist you.

If you would like to borrow cash from skilled lenders, the thanks to go is to contact venture capitals or angel investors. The previous are organized teams that lend cash to entrepreneurs which are willing to assist you out together with your invention. Whether you choose to borrow cash for your invention from angel investors or venture capitals, you ought to be able to return up with a reimbursement arrange.

Sunday, November 24, 2013

Master Bank Closed In Russia

Master bank
Anxious customers gathered outside Master bank closed doors, millions of credit cards suddenly off the abrupt closure of Master Bank this week has plunged the Russians in the most traumatic of the post- Soviet period hours. The central bank withdrew the license of the Master bank Wednesday with immediate effect. The bank was established in 1992 and which has in its Board of Directors Igor Putin, the Russian president 's cousin . The regulator said that they have no other choice after finding the violation on money laundering “repeated violations" , the Ministry of the Interior evaluating the sums involved more than 45 million.

At first glance, Master Bank is the 70th Russian bank in terms of assets hence it may seems that it is a relatively small institution. But “this is the first time a bank with more than three million customers lost its license," he said at a press conference Oleg Ivanov, vice president of the Association of regional banks. And consequences for the general public were eye souring, as Master Bank controls one third of the ATM network in Russia and ranks fifth in terms of total credit cards in circulation. Suddenly, millions of Russians were left without access to their account. Others who thought they had no connection with Master Bank, have seen their credit card stop working all of a sudden and the bank offered its services data processing 200 other small establishments.

Numerous shops, hotels, restaurants, as well as the liberal political party Yabloko were using his credit card to pay the salaries of their employees, who find themselves stranded. Notable difference resounding bank failures of the 1990s, most customers should recover much of their funds: Since 2004, the deposits are insured up to 700,000 rubles (15,700 Euros). Beyond this threshold, the holders have priority to be compensated at the end of the bankruptcy proceedings. The news has had a considerable impact in Russia, where a portion of the population keeps the painful memory of flights in bank failures, especially during the 1998 financial crisis economies, and is suspicious with respect to banks.

Can Structural reforms help Europe!

Structural reforms
The introduction of the single currency has allowed the accumulation of deep macro economic imbalances within the Euro area. Some member countries have generated current account surpluses, while others dug large current account deficits. These imbalances are explained in the loss of competitiveness "peripheral" countries: their real exchange rate has appreciated by 6-15 % compared to few others between 2001 and 2009. These losses of competitiveness explain themselves in part by strong price increases observed in the markets of non-tradable goods, particularly in the property sector. When imbalances are settled violently in 2009, the periphery has shifted into a severe recession and public debt is soaring mechanically. During an economic crisis, each member country of the Euro area can not vary its exchange rate to stimulate activity.

 Therefore, the peripheral countries have sought to simulate a devaluation of the exchange rate. For this, they have implemented structural reforms aimed at increasing competition in the labor markets and products. These include reducing the one hand, the monopoly power of firms and, on the other hand, the bargaining power of workers. In this way, the reforms allow favorable price drops and in purchasing power, prevent excessive wage increases, stimulate entrepreneurship, job creation, etc. Adopting structural reforms, peripheral in Euro area countries hope to regain competitiveness and improve their current balance. In addition, as the reforms are supposed to get agents to expect higher growth in the future, so encourage them to spend today, they should stimulate domestic demand. Structural reforms should they be provided in place when economies are in recession? When aggregate demand is insufficient or governments increase their spending directly to restore the level of aggregate demand , or the central bank eases monetary policy to stimulate private spending. If, in such a context, governments are forced to adopt austerity plans; that is in view of stabilizing the public debt and reassure markets about the sustainability of public debt, then the drop demand accelerates.

However, if the shock is particularly violent, a central bank may not be able to sufficiently lower its key rate to bring the economy to full employment and prevent the onset of deflation. Anticipating a further decline in prices and wages, private agents have an incentive to postpone spending in time, which leads firms to lower new prices and wages. Deflation is also reflected by an increase in real interest rates, which increases the burden of debt. Households and businesses are then no incentive to borrow, but rather to deleverage, which depresses the purchase of new durable goods.

In this case, households are encouraged to reduce their expenses if they anticipate a deterioration of employment protection in times of mass unemployment. Structural reforms cannot be implemented in a recession if governments and central banks are able to offset the impact on aggregate demand. Otherwise, they feed the contraction. Far from building trust and encourage investment, reforms may maintain pessimism and savings behavior. Therefore, they also degrade the potential growth by maintaining long-term unemployment and disincentive for companies to invest.

Sunday, October 6, 2013

Exchange Traded Funds and Securities Lending

What about the liquidity of these investment vehicles? In normal operation, market makers are constantly present to disseminate buyer and seller and act as counterparty investors. Their presence ensures the liquidity of the ETF, even if it is built on the underlying assets or not illiquid. This is where we must bear in mind another practice widespread market: securities lending. Securities lending are at two levels in the world of ETFs. First, the fund issuer may be required to pay the securities in the portfolio to improve profitability. This additional income can be used to reduce the tracking error, or simply return the funds. In this case it should be distributed to the investor again. Second, ETFs are exchange-traded, investors can sell short.

This possibility is heavily used by hedge funds because ETFs can speculate down on an entire index, avoiding the hassle of selling each individual underlying security. The speculator must borrow the security sold short during the holding period of the short position. On the stock market, the stock of available titles is limited, hence a strong demand in the bond market makes way more expensive to borrow, which discourages speculators. It is not the same on the ETF market and they can be created on demand, which allows borrowing amount and so building significant short positions.

This leads to a rather unlikely situation first, where some of the ETF amount of short positions is several times the number of shares actually outstanding! Many holders of ETF therefore hold shares actually "ghosts”, which were sold to them by a short seller, the latter saying that the shares can be created anyway when the time comes. If sellers orders flock to the ETF arbitrage trading seen above, which we have seen, are fully automated trigger.

Specialized intermediaries massive demand the return of the underlying securities of the issuer. But the issuer may either not hold at all, or have lent. He will not be able to deliver immediately, or not being able to deliver at all. However, there are provisions limiting the daily volume of refunds on the money, especially if short positions identified above a certain threshold.

In addition, an “Authorized Participant" must prove , when requesting a refund on the one hand , that it is "real" and not the result of a securities loan at any level of the chain. If such clauses may allow the fund to survive individually in a debacle, they are unlikely to calm the markets. Indeed, if investors are denied the ability to obtain repayment of the shares that they were sold as completely safe and liquid , it is more likely that the panic spreads to all ETF , then why not the underlying assets.